Why Risk Assessment?


Help stakeholders to identify the most consequential and important risks at multiple scales, for multiple sectors both under current and projected climate change scenarios.


Assist policy makers to prioritize entry points and develop targeted interventions.


Assist states to incorporate climate risk assessment findings into their State Action Plans on Climate Change. Also, aid in seeking climate finance for implementing adaptation strategies to address hazard- and sector-specific risks.


Identify the risk hotspots of climate change impacts in the context of selected hazards.


Identify the critical indicators of hazard, exposure and vulenrability and their relative contributions to the overall risk.

Risk Framework

Based on the state-of-the-art IPCC AR5 and AR6 Risk framework.

Image by IPCC AR5, 2014

Risk of Climate Change can be conceptualized at the intersection of three components - Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability.

Risk = f(H,E,V), where H is the climatic hazard, E is the exposure to the hazard, and V is the inherent vulnerability of human and ecological systems


"The potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event or trend or physical impact that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, as well as damage and loss to property, infrastructure, livelihoods, service provisions, ecosystems, and environmental resources"

“The presence of people, livelihood, ecosystems, environmental functions, services and resources, infrastructure, cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected”.

“The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected”. In other words, vulnerability can be defined as the degree to which a system cannot cope with the impacts of climate change, encompassing several biophysical, socio-economic, and institutional aspects. It represents the internal property of a system.

Key Findings


Flood Risk

Flood Risk indices range between 0.015-0.688 indicating their considerable variation across the districts of India.

Majority of districts at most risk of floods are located at Assam and West Bengal followed by Manipur, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Odisha, Uttarakhand and Kerala.


Drought Risk

Drought Risk indices range between 0.042-0.644 indicating their considerable variation across the districts of India.

More than 85% of districts under very high drought risk category fall in Bihar, Assam, Jharkhand, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.


Coexistence of very high flood and drought risk

Multiple districts exhibit overlap of very high flood and drought risks leading to a double jeopardy.

Patna (bihar), Alappuzha (Kerala), Charaideo, Dibrugarh, Sivasagar, South Salmara Mancachar, Golaghat (Assam), Kendraparha (Odisha), Murshidabad, Nadia, Uttar Dinajpur (West Bengal).

High hazard proness alone does not equate to high risk; it is the interaction with exposure and vulnerability that triggers risk.

Way forward

Sector-Specific Risk Index Development: This involves the creation of risk indices tailored to specific sectors such as agriculture, horticulture, or coastal activities at the state level.


Urban Risk Assessment: Assessing flood and drought risks in districts, towns, and cities, with a focus on water supply.


Standardised Methodology Application: Utilising a common methodology to assess risks associated with various hazards like landslides, heat stress, and compound or cascading extreme events.


Scope of District-Level Risk Assessment: Extending risk assessment coverage to all non-Himalayan states for a comprehensive all-India district-level risk evaluation.


National Level Risk Assessment: Conducting a nationwide risk assessment and ranking all 900 (approximately) districts of India.


Risk Assessment under Future Climate: Addressing the imperative of conducting risk assessments under different climate change scenarios, recognising the evolving nature of environmental challenges.

In Collaboration
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